This is related to the dual-process model of familiarity and recollection.
When deadlines for the response were short, the process of familiarity was present, along with an increased tendency to recall words over pictures. When response deadlines were longer, the process of recollection was being utilized, and a strong picture superiority effect was present.
Contrary to the assumption that pictures have faster access to the same semantic code than words do; all semantic information is stored in a single system. The only difference is that pictures and words access different features of the semantic code te Linde, . Across the lifespan, a gradual development of the picture superiority effect is evident. Some studies have shown that it appears to become more pronounced with age,   while others have found that this effect is also observed among younger children Whitehouse, Mayber, Durkin, .
During childhood, specifically among seven-year-olds, the picture superiority effect is lesser in magnitude than in other age groups.
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In healthy older adults, the picture superiority effect was found to be greater than it was for younger adults, in comparison to recognition for words, which was disadvantaged for older adults. While memory for words is impaired for older adults, pictures help restore their impaired memory and function properly Ally et al.
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In populations with Alzheimer's disease, and other mild cognitive impairments, the picture superiority effect remains evident. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Journal of Learning and Verbal Behavior. Consciousness and Cognition. Cognitive Development. British Journal of Developmental Psychology.
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